The unconsciousness is a state in which a person suddenly becomes unresponsive and appears to be asleep. The person can be unconscious for a few seconds or for a longer period of time. There can be different reasons for a person to suddenly become unresponsive, such as a car accident, a severe and continues blood loss, a wound in the chest or head, and overdose of a drug and alcohol poisoning. The sudden changes in the body can be the reason of temporarily unconscious state, and these causes include:
- Low blood pressure and sugar
- Syncope (brain deprived of blood flow)
- Problems with the heart beat
- Neurological syncope (stroke and ischemic attack)
- Straining and hyperventilating
Treat an Unconscious Patient with Basic Life Support
Rescue an unconscious person with the help of basic life support that is quite easy to remember because it is a DRS ABCD action plan:
D stands for Danger: it is the first step of the basic life support action plan. Before taking any step, make sure that the action plan is safe for you, the victim and onlookers.
R stands for Response: Check if the victim is able to respond you and for this purpose, you can use talk and touch practice to get the response. Ask questions like can you hear me? And are you okay? Squeeze the shoulders tightly to check if the patient is able to respond.
S stands for Send: You have to send a request for help by calling on an emergency number. Ask for help and realize them that it is really urgent to send help as early as possible.
A stands for Airway: Check the airway of the victim to remove any possible blockage. Tilt the head and lift the chin to open the airway. If you find any blockage, turn the victim on the particular side to clear his/her airway.
B stands for Breathing: Check the breathing of the victim and for this purpose, you can look, feel and listen to the breathing to check if it is normal. In case, the breathing is not normal, it is time to start CPR.
C stands for CPR: The breath of the patient is not normal, and it is time to give CPR. Give almost 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths. If you don’t want to give rescue breaths, give only compressions.
D stands for Defibrillator: Arrange a defibrillator and attach it to the AED to follow the prompt defibrillation. AED means automated external defibrillator and it is useful to help the patient in cardiac arrest. CPR should be continued until the victim responds or return to the normal breathing.